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Basic English Grammar

CHAPTER 1 - Using Be

1-1 Noun + is + noun: singular

  • (a) Canada is a country.

    Singular means “one.”
    In (a): Canada = a singular noun
    is = a singular verb
    country = a singular noun

  • (b) Mexico is a country.

    A frequently comes in front of singular nouns.
    In (b): a comes in front of the singular noun country.
    A is called an “article.”

  • (c) A cat is an animal.

    A and an have the same meaning. They are both articles. A is used in front of words that begin with consonants: b, c, d, f, g, etc.
    Examples: a bed, a cat, a dog, a friend, a girl
    An is used in front of words that begin with a, e, i and o.*
    Examples: an animal, an ear, an island, an office

*An is sometimes used in front of words that begin with u.
 Vowels = a, e, i, o, u.
 Consonants = b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.

1-2 Noun + are + noun: plural

NOUN + ARE + NOUN

  • (a) Cat are animals.

    Plural means “two, three, or more.”
    Cats = a plural noun
    are = a plural verb
    animals = a plural noun

  • (b) SINGULAR: a cat, an animal
    ​ PLURAL: cats, animals

    Plural nouns end in -s.
    A and an are used only with singular nouns.

  • (c) SINGULAR: a city, a country
    ​ PLURAL: cities, countries

    Some singular nouns that end in -y have a special.
    plural form: They omit the -y and add -ies.

  • (d) Canada and China are countries.
    (e) Dogs and cats are animals.

    Two nouns connected by and are followed by are.
    In (d): Canada is a singular noun. China is a singular noun. They are connected by and.
    Together they are plural, i.e., “more than one.”

1-3 Pronoun + be + noun

SINGULAR

  • (a) I am a student.
    (b) You are a student.
    (c) She is a student.
    (d) He is a student.
    (e) It is a student.

PLURAL

  • (f) We are students.
    (g) You are students.
    (h) They are students.

    I, you, he, she, it, we, they = pronouns
    am, is, are = forms of be

  • (i) Rita is in my class. She is a student.
    (j) Tom is in my class. He is a student.
    (k) Rita and Tom are in my class. They are students.

    Pronouns refer to nouns.
    In (i): she (feminine) = Rita.
    In (j): he (masculine) = Tom.
    In (k): they = Rita and Tom.

1-4 Contractions with be

PRONOUN + BE -> CONTRACTION

AM

  • I + am -> I’m
    (a) I’m a student.

IS

  • she + is -> she’s
    (b) She’s a student.
    he + is -> he’s
    (c) He’s a student.
    it + is -> it’s
    (d) It’s a city.

ARE

  • you + are -> you’re
    (e) You’re a student.
    we + are -> we’re
    (f) We’re students.
    they + are -> they’re
    (g) They’re students.

When people speak, they often push two words together. A contraction = two words that are pushed together.
Contractions of a subject pronoun + be are used in both speaking and writing.
PUNCTUATION: Then mark in the middle of a contraction is called an “apostrophe” (‘).

1-5 Negative with be

(a) I am not a teacher.
-> I’m not
(b) You are not a teacher.
-> you’re not / you aren’t
(c) She is not a teacher.
-> she’s not / she isn’t
(d) He is not a teacher.
-> he’s not / she isn’t
(e) It is not a city.
-> it’s not / it isn’t
(f) We are not teacher.
-> we’re not / we aren’t
(g) You are not teacher.
-> you’re not / you aren’t
(h) They are not teacher.
-> they’re not / they aren’t

Not makes a sentence negative.

CONTRACTIONS:
Be and not can be contracted.
Note that “I am” has only one contraction with be, as in (a), but there are two contractions with be for (b) through (g).

1-6 Be + adjective

NOUN + BE + ADJECTIVE

(a) A ball is round.
(b) Balls are round.
(c) Mary is intelligent.
(d) Mary and Tom are intelligent.

PRONOUN + BE + ADJECTIVE

(e) I am hungry.
(f) She is young.
(g) They are happy.

round, intelligent, hungry, young, happy = adjectives
Adjectives often follow a form of be (am, is, are). Adjectives describe or give information about a noun or pronoun that comes at the beginning of a sentence.*

*The noun or pronoun that comes at the beginning of a sentence is call a “subject.”

1-7 Be + a place

  • (a) Maria is here.
    (b) Bob is at the library.

    In (a): here = a place.
    In (b): at the library = a place.
    Be is often followed by a place.

  • (c) Maria is here. / there. / downstairs. / upstairs. / inside. / outside. / downtown.

    A place may be one word, as in the examples in (c).

PREPOSITION + NOUN

  • (d) Bob is
    at the library.
    on the bus.
    in his room.
    at work.
    next to Maria.

    A place may be a prepositional phrase (preposition + noun), as in (d).

  •  

  • SOME COMMON PREPOSITIONS
    above / between / next to
    at / from / on
    behind / in / under

1-8 Summary: basic sentence patterns with be

SUBJECT + BE + NOUN

  • (a) I + am + a student.

    The noun or pronoun that comes at the beginning of sentence is call the “subject.”

SUBJECT + BE + ADJECTIVE

  • (b) He + is + intelligent.

    Be is a “verb.” Almost all English sentences have a subject and a verb.

SUBJECT + BE + A PLACE

  • (c) We + are + in class.
    (d) She + is + upstairs.

    Notice in the examples: There are three basic completions for sentences that begin with a subject + the verb be:

    • a noun, as in (a)
    • an adjective, as in (b)
    • An expression of place*, as in (c) and (d)

*An expression of place can be a preposition + noun, or it can be one word.

CHAPTER 2 - Using Be and Have

2-1 Yes/no questions with be

QUESTION -> STATEMENT (BE + SUBJECT -> SUBJECT + BE)

(a) Is Anna a student? -> Anna is a student.
(b) Are They at home? -> They are at home.

In a question, be comes in front of the subject.

PUNCTUATION: A question ends with a question mark (?).
A statement ends with a period (.).

2-2 Short answers to yes/no questions

QUESTION -> SHORT ANSWER

(a) Is Anna a student?
-> Yes, she is.
-> No, she’s not.
-> No, she isn’t.

(b) Are they at home?
-> Yes, they are.
-> No, they aren’t.

(c) Are you ready?
-> Yes, I am.
-> No, I’m not.*

Spoken contractions are not used in short answers that begin with yes.
In (a): INCORRECT: Yes, she’s.
In (b): INCORRECT: Yes, they’re.
In (c): INCORRECT: Yes, I’m.

*Am and not are not contracted.

2-3 Questions with be: using where

Where asks about place. Where comes at the beginning of the question, in front of be.

QUESTION -> SHORT ANSWER + (LONG ANSWER)

BE + SUBJECT

(a) Is the book on the table? -> Yes, it is. (The book is on the table.)
(b) Are the books on the table? -> Yes, they are. (The books on the table.)

WHERE + BE + SUBJECT

(c) Where is the books? -> On the table. (The book is on the table.)
(d) Where are the books? -> On the table. (The books are on the table.)

2-4 Using have and has

SINGULAR -> PLURAL

(a) I have a pen. -> (f) We have pens.
(b) You have a pen. -> (g) You have pens.
(c) She has a pen. -> (h) They have pens.
(d) He has a pen.
(e) It has a pen.

I / you / we / they + have
she / he / it + has

2-5 Using my, your, his, her, our, their

SINGULAR -> PLURAL

(a) I have a book. My book is red. ->
(e) We have books. Our books are red.

(b) You have a book. Your book is red. ->
(f) You have a books. Your books are red.

(c) She has a book. Her book is red. ->
(g) They have books. Their books are red.

(d) He has a book. His book is red.

SUBJECT FORM -> POSSESSIVE FORM
I -> my
you -> your
she -> her
he -> his
we -> our
they -> their

I possess a book. = I have a book. = It is my book.

My, our, her, his, our, and their are called “possessive adjectives.” They come in front of nouns.

2-6 Using this and that

  • (a) I have a book in my hand. This book is red.
    (b) I see a book on your desk. That book is red.
    (c) This my book.
    (d) That is your book.

    this book = the book is near me.
    that book = the book is not near me.

  • (e) That’s her book.

    CONTRACTION: that is = that’s

  • (f) This is ("This’s") her book.

    In spoken English, this is is usually pronounced as “this’s.” It is not used in writing.

2-7 Using these and those

(a) My books are on my desk. These are my books.
(b) Your books are on your desk. Those are your books.

SINGULAR -> PLURAL
this -> these
that -> those

2-8 Asking questions with what and who + be

  • (a) What is this (thing)? It’s a pen.
    (b) Who is that (man)? That’s Mr.Lee.
    (c) What are those (things)? They’re pens
    (d) Who are they? They’re Mr. and Mrs. Lee.

    What asks about things.
    Who asks about people.

    Note: In questions with what and who,
    is is followed by a singular word.
    are is followed by a plural word.

  • (e) What’s this?
    (f) Who’s that man?

    CONTRACTIONS
    what is = what’s
    who is = who’s

CHAPTER 3 - Using the Simple Present

3-1 Form and basic meaning of the simple present tense

SINGULAR -> PLURAL

  • 1st PERSON: I talk -> we talk
    2nd PERSON: you talk -> you talk
    3rd PERSON: she talks / he talks / it rains -> they talk

    Notice: The verb after she, he, it (3rd person singular) has a final -s: talks.

  • (a) I eat breakfast every morning.
    (b) Olga speaks English every day.
    (c) We sleep every nigh.
    (d) They go to the beach every weekend.

    The simple present tense expresses habits. In (a): Eating breakfast is a habit, a usual activity. Every morning = Monday morning, Tuesday morning, Wednesday morning, Thursday morning, Friday morning, Saturday morning, and Sunday morning.

  • She wakes up every morning at 7:00.
    He shaves every morning.

3-2 Using frequency adverbs: always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never

100% always
(a) Bob always eats breakfast.

90%-99% usually
(b) Mary usually eats breakfast.

75%-90% often
(c) They often watch TV at night.

25%-75% sometimes
(d) Tom sometimes watches TV.

5%-10% seldom
(e) I seldom watch TV.

1%-10% rarely
(f) I rarely drink milk.

0% never
(g) I never eat paper.

SUBJECT + { always / usually / often / sometimes / seldom / rarely / never} + VERB
The words in this list are called “frequency adverbs.” They come between the subject and the simple present verb.*

*Some frequency adverbs can also come at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. For example:
 ​Sometimes I get up at seven. I sometimes get up seven. I get up at seven sometimes.

3-3 Other frequency expressions

  • (a) I drink tea { once a day. / twice a day. / three times a day. / four times a day. / etc. }
    (b) I see my grandparents three times a week.
    (c) I see my aunt once a month.
    (d) I see my cousin Sam twice a year.

    We can express frequency by saying how many times something happens
    a day.
    a week.
    a month.
    a year.

  • (e) I see my roommate every morning.
    I pay my bills every month.
    I see my doctor every year.

    Every is singular. The noun that follows (e.g., morning) must be singular.
    INCORRECT: every mornings

3-4 Using frequency adverbs with be

SUBJECT + BE + FREQUENCY ADVERB

  • Tom + { is / always / usually / often / sometimes / seldom / rarely / never } + late for class.

    Frequency adverbs follow am, is, are (the simple forms of be).

SUBJECT + FREQUENCY ADVERB + OTHER SIMPLE PRESENT VERBS

  • Tom + { always / usually / often / sometimes / seldom / rarely / never } + comes late.

    Frequency adverbs come before all simple present verbs except be.

3-5 Spelling and pronunciation of final -es

SPELLING -> PRONUNCIATION

-sh (a) push -> pushes - push/ǝz/
-ch (b) teach -> teaches - teach/ǝz/
-ss (c) kiss -> kisses - kiss/ǝz/
-x (d) fix -> fixes - fix/ǝz/

Ending of verb: -sh, -ch, -ss, -x.
Spelling: add -es.
Pronunciation: /ǝz/.

3-6 Adding final -s/-es to words that end in -y

  • (a) cry -> cries / try -> tries

    End of verb: consonant + -y.
    Spelling: change y to i, add -es.

  • (b) pay -> pays / enjoy -> enjoys

    End of verb: vowel + -y.
    Spelling: add -s.

3-7 Irregular singular verbs: has, does, goes

  • (a) I have a book.
    (b) He has a book.
    she / he / it + has

  • (c) I do my work.
    (d) She does her work.
    she / he / it + does

  • (e) They go to school.
    (f) She goes to school.
    she / he / it + goes

Have, do and go have irregular forms for third person singular:
have -> has
do -> does
go -> goes

3-8 Spelling and pronunciation of final -s/-es

SPELLING -> PRONUNCIATION

  • (a) rub - > rubs - rub/z/
    ride -> rides - ride/z/
    smile -> smiles - smile/z/
    dream -> dreams - dream/z/
    run -> runs - run/z/
    wear -> wears - wear/z/
    drive -> drives - drive/z/
    see -> sees - see/z/
    snow -> snows - snow/z/

    (b) drink -> drinks - drink/s/
    sleep -> sleeps - sleep/s/
    write -> writes - write/s/
    laugh -> laughs - laugh/s/

    To form a simple present verb in 3rd person singular, you usually add only -s, as in (a) and (b).

    In (a): -s is pronounced /z/. The final sounds in (a) are “voiced.”* Voiced sounds make your vocal cords vibrate. The sound /b/ is voiced sound.

    In (b): -s is pronounced /s/. The final sounds in (b) are “voiceless.”* Your vocal cords do NOT vibrate with voiceless sounds. you push air through your teeth and lips. The sound /p/ is a voiceless sound.

  • (c) push -> pushes - push/ǝz/
    teach -> teaches - teach/ǝz/
    kiss -> kisses - kiss/ǝz/
    fix -> fixes - fix/ǝz/

    End of verb: -sh, -ch, -ss, -x
    Spelling: add -es
    Pronunciation: /ǝz/

  • (d) cry -> cries - cry/z/
    study -> studies - study/z/

    End of verb: consonant + -y
    Spelling: change y to i, add -es

  • (e) pay -> pays - pay/z/
    buy -> buys - buy/z/

    End of verb: vowel + -y
    Spelling: change y to i, add -es |

  • (f) have -> has - /hæz/
    go -> goes - /ɡoz/
    do -> does - /dǝz/

    The 3rd person singular forms of have, go and do are irregular. |

*Voiced sounds = b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v, y and all the vowels: a, e, i, o, u.
 Voiceless sounds = f, h, k, p, s, t, th as in think.

3-9 The simple present: negative

  • (a) I do not drink coffee.
    We do not drink coffee.
    You do not drink coffee.
    They do not drink coffee.

    NEGATIVE: I / We / You / They + do not + main verb

    (b) She does not drink coffee.
    He does not drink coffee.
    It does not drink coffee.

    She / He / It + does not + main verb

    Do and does are called “helping verb.”
    Notice in (b): In 3rd person singular, there is no -s on the main verb; the final -s is part of does.
    INCORRECT: She does not drinks coffee.

  • (c) I don’t drink tea.
    They don’t drink tea.
    (d) He doesn’t drink tea.
    Mary doesn’t have a car.

    CONTRACTIONS:
    do not = don’t
    does not = doesn’t
    People usually use contractions when they speak.
    People often use contractions when they write.

3-10 The simple present: yes/no questions

DO / DOES + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB

  • (a) Do I like coffee?
    (b) Do you like coffee?
    (c) Do we like coffee?
    (d) Do they like coffee?

    (e) Does she like coffee?
    (f) Does he like coffee?
    (g) Does it taste good?

    QUESTION FORMS, SIMPLE PRESENT
    Do I / you / we / they + main verb (simple form)
    Does she / he / it + main verb (simple form)

    Notice in (e): The main verb in the question does not have a final -s. The final -s is part of does.
    INCORRECT: Does she likes coffee?

  • (h) Are you a student?
    INCORRECT: Do you be a student?

    When the main verb is form of be, do is NOT used.

QUESTION -> SHORT ANSWER

  • (i) Do you like tea?
    -> Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.
    (j) Does Bob like tea?
    -> Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

    Do, don’t, does and doesn’t are used in the short answers to yes/no questions in the simple present.

3-11 The simple present: asking information questions with where

(WHERE) + DO/DOES + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB -> SHORT ANSWER

  • (a) Do they live in Miami?
    -> Yes, they do. / No, they don’t.
    (b) Where do they live?
    -> In Miami.

  • (c) Does Gina live in Rome?
    -> Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
    (d) Where does Gina live?
    -> In Rome.

(a) = a yes/no question
(b) = an information question
Where asks for information about a place.

The form of yes/no question and information questions is the same:
Do/Does + subject + main verb

3-12 The simple present: asking information questions with when and what time

Q-WORD * + DO/DOES + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB -> SHORT ANSWER

  • (a) When do you go to class?
    -> At nine o’clock.
    (b) What time do you go to class?
    -> At nine o’clock.

    (c) When does Anna eat dinner?
    -> At six P.M.
    (d) What time does Anna eat dinner?
    -> At six P.M.

    When and what time ask for information about time.

  • What time do you usually go to class?

    The frequency adverb usually comes immediately after the subject in a question:
    Q-word + does/do + subject + usually + main verb

*A “Q-Word” is “a question word.” Where, when, what time, who and why are examples of question words.

3-13 Summary: information questions with be and do

Q-WORD + BE + SUBJECT -> LONG ANSWER

(a) Where is Thailand?
-> Thailand is in Southeast Asia.
(b) Where are your books?
-> My books are on my desk.
(c) When is the concert?
-> The concert is on April 3rd.
(d) What is your name?
-> My name is Yoko.
(e) What time is it?
-> It is ten-thirty.

Q-WORD + DO + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB - > LONG ANSWER

(f) Where do you live?
-> I live in Los Angeles.
(g) What time does the plane arrive?
-> The plane arrives at six-fifteen.
(h) What do monkeys eat?
-> Monkeys eat fruit, plants and insects.
(i) When does Bob study?
-> Bob studies in the evenings.

NOTICE: In questions with be as the main and only verb, the subject follows be. In simple present questions with verbs other than be, the subject comes between do/does and the main verb.

CHAPTER 4 - Using the Present Progressive

4-1 Be + -ing: the present progressive tense

am + -ing
(a) I am sitting in class right now.

is + -ing
(b) Rita is sitting in class right now.

are + -ing
(c) You are sitting in class right now.

In (a): When I say this sentence, I am in class. I am sitting. I am not standing. The action (sitting) is happening right now, and I am saying the sentenve at the same time.

am, is, are = helping verbs
sitting = the main verb

am, is, are + -ing = the present progressive tense*

*The present progressive is also called the “present continuous” or the “continuous present.”

4-2 Spelling of -ing

END OF VERB -> -ING FORM

  • Rule 1
    A CONSONANT* + -e -> DROP THE -e and ADD -ing
    smile -> smiling
    write -> writing

  • Rule 2
    ONE VOWEL* + ONE CONSONANT -> DOUBLE THE CONSONANT and ADD -ing**
    sit -> sitting
    run -> running

  • Rule 3
    TWO VOWELS + ONE CONSONANT -> ADD -ing; DO NOT DOUBLE THE CONSONANT
    read -> reading
    rain -> raining

  • Rule 4
    TWO CONSONANTS -> ADD -ing; DO NOT DOUBLE THE CONSONANT
    stand -> standing
    push -> pushing

*Vowels = a, e, i, o ,u. Consonants = b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.
**Exception to Rule 2: Do not double w, x, and y. snow -> snowing / fix -> fixing / say -> saying

4-3 The present progressive: negatives

(a) I am not sleeping. I am awake.
(b) Ben isn’t listening. He’s daydreaming.
(c) Mr. and Mrs. Brown aren’t watching TV. They’re reading.

Present progressive negative:
am / is / are + not + -ing

4-4 The present progressive: questions

QUESTION -> SHORT ANSWER (+ LONG ANSWER)

BE + SUBJECT + -ING

  • (a) Is Mary sleeping?
    -> Yes, she is. (She’s sleeping.)
    -> No, she’s not. (She’s not sleeping.)
    -> No, she isn’t. (She isn’t sleeping.)
    (b) Are you watching TV?
    -> Yes, I am. (I am watching TV.)
    -> No. I’m not. (I’m not watching TV.)

Q-WORD + BE + SUBJECT + -ING

  • (c) Where is Mary sleeping?
    -> In bed. (She’s sleeping in bed.)
    (d) What is Ted watching?
    -> A movie. (Ted is watching a movie.)
    (e) Why are you watching TV?
    -> Because I like this program. (I’m watching TV because I like this program.)

4-5 The simple present vs. the present progressive

STATEMENTS

  • (a) I sit in class every day.
    (b) I am sitting in class right now.
    (c) The teacher writes on the board every day.
    (d) The teacher is writing on the board right now.

    The SIMPLE PRESENT express habits or usual activities, as in (a), (c) and (e).
    The PRESENT PROGRESSIVE expresses right now, while the speaker is speaking, as in (b), (d) and (f).

QUESTIONS

  • (e) Do you sit in class every day?
    (f) Are you sitting in class right now?
    (g) Does the teacher write on the board right now?
    (h) Is the teacher writing on the board right now?

    The SIMPLE PRESENT uses do and does as helping verbs in questions.
    The PRESENT PROGRESSIVE uses am, is and are in questions.

NEGATIVES

  • (i) I don’t sit in class every day.
    (j) I’m not sitting in class right now.
    (k) The teacher doesn’t write on the board every day.
    (l) The teacher isn’t writing on the board right now.

    The SIMPLE PRESENT user do and does as helping verbs in negatives.
    The PRESENT PROGRESSIVE user am, is and are in negatives.

4-6 Nonaction verbs not used in the present progressive

  • (a) I’m hungry right now. I want an apple.
    INCORRECT: I am wanting an apple.
    (b) I hear a siren. Do you hear it too?
    INCORRECT: I’m hearing a siren. Are you hearing it too?

    Some verbs are NOT used in the present progressive. They are called “nonaction verbs.”
    In (a): Want is a nonaction verb. Want expresses a physical or emotional need, not an action.
    In (b): Hear is a nonaction verb. Hear expresses a sensory experience, not an action.

  • NONACTION VERBS
    dislike / hear / believe
    hate / see / know
    like / smell / think (meaning believe)*
    love / taste / understand
    need / want

*Sometimes think is used in progressive tenses.

4-7 See, look at, watch, hear and listen to

SEE, LOOK AT, and WATCH

  • (a) I see many things in this room.
    (b) I’m looking at the clock. I want to know the time.
    (c) Bob is watching TV.

    In (a): see = a nonaction verb. Seeing happens because my eyes are open. Seeing is a physical reaction, not a planned action.

    In (b): look at = an action verb. Looking is a planned or purposeful action. Looking happens for a reason.

    In (c): watch = an action verb. I watch something for a long time, but I look at something for a short time.

HEAR and LISTEN TO

  • (d) I’m in my apartment. I’m trying to study. I hear music from the next apartment. The music is loud.
    (e) I’m in my apartment. I’m studying. I have a tape recorder. I’m listening to music. I like to listen to music when I study.

    In (d): hear = a nonaction verb. Hearing is an unplanned act. It expresses a physical reaction.
    In (e): listen (to) = an action verb. Listening happens for a purpose.

4-8 Think about and think that

THINK + ABOUT + A NOUN

  • (a) I think about my family every day.
    (b) I am thinking about grammar right now.

    In (a): Ideas about my family are in my mind every day.
    In (b): My mind is busy now. Ideas about grammar are in my mind right now.

THINK + THAT + A STATEMENT

  • (c) I think that Sue is lazy.
    (d) I think that I am lazy.
    (e) I think that the weather is nice.

    In (c): In my opinion Sue is lazy. I believe that Sue is lazy. People use think that when they want to say (to state) their beliefs. The present progressive is often used with think about. The present progressive is almost never used with think that.
    INCORRECT: I am thinking that Sue is lazy.

  • (f) I think that Mike is a nice person.
    (g) I think Mike is a nice Person.

    (f) and (g) have the same meaning. People often omit that after think, especially in speaking.

CHAPTER 5 - Talking About the present

5-1 Using it to talk about time

QUESTION -> ANSWER

(a) What day is it?
-> It’s Monday.

(b) What month is it?
-> It’s September.

(c) What year is it?
-> It’s 2____.

(d) What’s the date today?
-> It’s September 15th.
-> It’s the 15th of September.

(e) What time is it?
-> It’s 9:00.*
-> It’s nine.
-> It’s nine o’clock.
-> It’s nine (o’clock) A.M.

In English, people use it to express (to talk about) time.

*American English uses a colon (two dots) between the hour and the minutes: 9:00 A.M. British English uses one dot: 9.00 A.M.

5-2 Prepositions of time

at

  • (a) We have class at one o’clock.
    (b) I have an appointment with the doctor at 3:00.

    at + a specific time on the clock.

    (c) We sleep at night.

    at + night

in

  • (d) My birthday is in October.

    in + a specific month

    (e) I was born in 1989.

    in + a specific year

    (f) We have class in the morning.

    in + the morning

    (g) Bob has class in the afternoon.

    in + the afternoon

    (h) I study in the evening.

    in + the evening

on

  • (i) I have class on Monday.

    on + a specific day of the week

    (j) I was born on October 31.1991.

    on + a specific date

from … to

  • (k) We have class from 1:00 to 2:00.

    from (a specific time) to (a specific time)

5-3 Using it to talk about the weather

  • (a) It’s sunny today.
    (b) It’s hot and humid today.
    (c) It’s a nice day today.

    In English, people usually use it when they talk about the weather.

  • (d) What’s the weather like in Istanbul in January?
    (e) How’s the weather in Moscow in the summer?

    People commonly ask about the weather by saying What’s the weather like? or How’s the weather?

5-4 There + be

THERE + BE + SUBJECT + PLACE

  • (a) There is a bird in the tree.
    (b) There are four birds in the tree.

    There + be is used to say that something exists in a particular place.
    Notice: The subject follows be:
    there + is + singular noun
    there + are + plural noun

  • (c) There’s a bird in the tree.
    (d) There’re four birds in tree.

    CONTRACTIONS:
    There + is = there’s
    There + are = there’re

5-5 There + be: yes/no questions

BE + THERE + SUBJECT

(a) Is there any juice in the refrigerator?
-> Yes, there is.
-> No, there isn’t.

(b) Are there any eggs in the refrigerator?
-> Yes, there are.
-> No, there aren’t.

5-6 There + be: asking questions with how many

HOW MANY + SUBJECT + ARE + THERE + PLACE

  • (a) How many chapters are there in this book?
    -> Sixteen. (There are 16 chapters in this book.)
    (b) How many provinces are there in Canada?
    -> Ten. (There are ten provinces in Canada.)

  • (c) How many words do you see?
    INCORRECT: How many word do you see?

    Notice: The noun that follows how many is plural.

5-7 Prepositions of place

  • (a) My book is on my desk.

    In (a):
    on = a preposition
    my desk = objet of the preposition
    on my desk = a prepositional phrase

  • (b) Tom lives in the United States. He lives in New York City.
    (c) He lives on Hill Street.
    (d) He lives at 4472 Hill Street.

    A person lives:
    in a country and in a city
    on a street, avenue, road, etc.
    at a street address

5-8 Some prepositions of place: a list

above / beside / in back of / in the middle of / on
around / between / in the back of / inside / on top of
at / far (away) from / in front of / near / outside
behind / in / in the front of / next to / under
below

  • (a) The book is beside the cup.
    (b) The book is next to the cup.
    (c) The book is near the cup.

  • (d) The book is between two cups.

  • (e) The book is far away from the cup.

  • (f) The cup is on the book.
    (g) The cup is on top of the book.

  • (h) The cup is under the book.

  • (i) The cup is above the book.

  • (j) The hand is around the cup.

  • (k) The man is in back of the bus.
    (l) The man is behind the bus.

  • (m) The man is in the back of the bus.

  • (n) The man is in front of the bus.
    In (k), (l), and (n): the man is outside the bus.

  • (o) The man is in the front of the bus.

  • (p) the man is in the middle of the bus.
    In (m), (o), and (p): the man is inside the bus.

5-9 Need and want + a noun or an infinitive

VERB + NOUN

(a) We need food.
(b) I want a sandwich.

VERB + INFINITIVE

(c) We need to eat.
(d) I want to eat a sandwich.

Need is stronger than want. Need gives the idea that something is ver important.
Need and want are followed by a noun or by an infinitive.
An infinitive = to + the simple from of a verb.*

*The simple form of a verb = a verb without -s, -ed, or -ing. Examples of the simple form of a verb: come, help, answer, write. Examples of infinitives: to come, to help, to answer, to write.

5-10 Would like

  • (a) I’m thirsty. I want a glass of water.
    (b) I’m thirsty. I would like a glass of water.

    (a) and (b) have the same meaning, but would like is usually more polite than want. I would like is a nice way of saying I want.

  • (c) I would like / You would like / She would like / He would like / We would like / They would like + a glass of water.

    Notice in (c):
    There is no final -s on would.
    There is no final -s on like.

  • (d) CONTRACTIONS
    I’d = would
    you’d = you would
    she’d = she would
    he’d = he would
    we’d = we would
    they’d = they would

    Would is often contracted with pronouns in both speaking and writing.
    In speaking, would is usually contracted with nouns too.
    WRITEN: Tom would like to come.
    SPOKEN: “Tom’d like to come.”

WOULD LIKE + INFINITIVE

  • (e) I would like to eat a sandwich.

    Notice in (e): would like can be followed by an infinitive.

WOULD + SUBJECT + LIKE

  • (f) Would you like some tea?

    In a question, would comes before the subject.

  • (g) Yes, I would. (I would like some tea.)

    Would is used alone in short answers to questions with would like. It is not contracted in short answers.

5-11 Would like vs. like

(a) I would like to go to the zoo.
(b) I like to go to the zoo.

In (a): I would like to go the zoo means I want to go to the zoo.
In (b): I like to go to the zoo means I enjoy the zoo.
Would like indicates that I want to do something now or in the future.
Like indicates that I always, usually, or often enjoy something.

CHAPTER 6 - Nouns and Pronouns

6-1 Nouns: subjects and objects

  • (a) Birds fly. (NOUN)
    subject + verb

    (b) John is holding a pen. (NOUN)
    subject + verb + object

    A NOUN is used as the subject of a sentence.
    A NOUN is used as the object of a verb.*
    In (a): Birds is a NOUN. It is used as the subject of the sentence.
    In (b): pen is a NOUN. It has the article in a in front of it; a pen is used as the object of the verb is holding.

  • (c) Birds fly in the sky. (NOUN)
    subject + verb + prep. + object of prep.

    John is holding a pen in his hand. (NOUN)
    subject + verb + object + prep. + object of prep.

    A NOUN is also used as the object of a preposition.
    In (c): in is a preposition (prep.). The noun sky (with the article the in front) is the OBJECT of the preposition in.
    Some common prepositions: about, across, at, between, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with.

*Some verbs are followed by an object. These verbs are called transitive verbs (v.t.). Some verbs are not followed by an object. These verbs are called intransitive verbs (v.i.).

6-2 Adjective + noun

  • (a) I don’t like cold weather. (adj. + noun)
    (b) Alex is a fresh apple.
    (c) The hungry boy has a fresh apple.

    An adjective (adj.) describes a noun. In grammar, we say that adjectives “modify” nouns. The word “modify” means “change a little.” Adjectives give a little different meaning to a noun: cold weather, hot weather, nice weatherm, bad weather.
    Adjectives come in front of nouns.

  • (d) The weather is cold. (noun + be + adj.)

    Reminder: An adjective can also follow be; the adjective describes the subject of the sentence.

  • COMMON ADJECTIVE

    beautiful - ugly / big - little / big - small
    boring - interesting / cheap - expensive / clean - dirty
    cold - hot / dangerous - safe / dry - wet
    easy - hard / easy - difficult / good - bad
    happy - sad / large - short / noisy - quiet
    old - new / old - young / poor - rich
    sour - sweet / strong - weak
    angry / bright / busy / delicious / exciting
    famous / favorite / free / fresh / healthy
    honest / hungry / important / intelligent / kind
    lazy / nervous / nice / ripe / serious / wonderful

6-3 Subject pronouns and object pronouns

SUBJECT PRONOUNS & OBJECT PRONOUNS

  • (a) I speak English. & (b) Bob knows me.
    (c) You speak English. & (d) Bob knows you.
    (e) She speaks English. & (f) Bob knows her.
    (g) He speaks English. & (h) Bob knows him.
    (i) It starts at 8:00. & (j) Bob knows it.
    (k) We speak English. & (l) Bob talks to us.
    (m) You speak English. & (n) Bob talks to you.
    (o) They speak English. & (p) Bob talks to them

    SUBJECT - OBJECT
    I - me
    you - you
    she - her
    he - him
    it - it
    we - us
    you - you
    they - them

  • (q) I know Tony. He is a friendly person.
    (r) I like Tony. I know him well.
    (s) I have a red book. It is on my desk.

    A pronoun has the same meaning as a noun. In (q): he has the same meaning as Tony. In (r): him has the same meaning as Tony. In grammar, we say that a pronoun “refers to” a noun. The pronouns he and him refer to the noun Tony.

    Sometimes a pronoun refers to a “noun phrase.” In (s): it refers to the whole phrase a red book.

6-4 Nouns: singular and plural

SINGULAR -> PLURAL

  • (a) one pen -> two pens
    one apple -> three apples
    one cup -> four cups
    one elephant -> five elephants

    To make the plural form of most nouns, add -s.

  • (b) baby -> babies
    city -> cities

    End of noun: consonant + -y
    Plural form: change y to i, and -es.

  • (c) boy -> key
    boys -> keys

    End of noun: vowel + -y
    Plural form: add -s.

  • (d) wife -> thief
    wives -> thieves

    End of noun: -fe or -f
    Plural form: change f to v, and -es.

  • (e) dish -> dishes
    match -> matches
    class -> classes
    box -> boxes

    End of noun: -sh, -ch, -ss, -x
    Plural form: add -es.
    Pronunciation: /ǝz/

  • (f) tomato -> tomatoes
    potato -> potatoes
    zoo -> zoos
    radio -> radios

    End of noun: consonant + -o
    Plural form: add -es.
    End of noun: vowel + -o
    Plural form: add -s.

6-5 Nouns: irregular plural forms

SINGULAR -> PLURAL

  • (a) child -> children
    (b) foot -> feet
    (c) man -> men
    (d) mouse -> mice
    (e) tooth -> teeth
    (f) woman -> women

    Mr. Smith has one child. Mr. Cook has two children.
    I have a right foot and a left foot. I have two feet.
    I see a man on the street. I see two men on the street.
    My cat sees a mouse. Cats like to catch mice.
    My tooth hurts. My teech are white.
    There’s one woman in our class. There are ten women in your class.

  • (g) sheep -> sheep
    (h) fish -> fish

    Annie drew a picture of one sheep. Tommy drew a picture of two sheep.
    Bob has an aquarium. He has one fish. Sue has an aquarium. She has seven fish.

  • (i) (none) * -> people

    There are fifteen people in this room.
    (Notice: People does not have a final -s.)

* People is alway plural. It has no singular form.

CHAPTER 7 Count and Noncount Nouns

7-1 Nouns: count and noncount

COUNT NOUN

  • SINGULAR: a book / one book
    PLURAL: books / two books / some books / a lot of books

    A COUNT NOUN
    SINGULAR: a + noun / one + noun
    PLURAL: noun + -s

NONCOUNT NOUN

  • SINGULAR: mail / some mail / a lot of mail
    PLURAL: (no plural form)

    A NONCOUNT NOUN
    SINGULAR: Do not use a. / Do not use one.
    PLURAL: A noncount noun does not have a plural form.

  • COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS
    advice / mail
    furniture / money
    help / money
    homework / traffic
    information / vocabulary
    jewelry / weather
    luck / work
    heat / boots
    sleep / medicine

    bread / pepper
    cheese / rice
    coffee / salt
    food / soup
    fruit / sugar
    meat / tea
    milk / water
    juice / fruit

7-2 Using an vs. a

  • (a) A dog is an animal.

    A an an are used in front of singular count nouns.
    In (a): dog and animal are singular count nouns.

  • (b) I work in an office.
    COMPARE
    (c) Mr.Lee is an old man.

    Use an in front of words that begin with the vowel a, e, i, and o: an apartment, an elephant, an idea, an ocean.
    In (c): Notice that an is used because the adjective (old) begins with a vowel and comes in front of a singular count noun (man).

  • (d) I have an uncle.
    COMPARE
    (e) He works at a university.

    Use an if a word that begins with "u" has a vowel sound: an uncle, an ugly picture.
    Use a if a word that begins with "u" has a /yu/ sound: a university, a usual event.

  • (f) I need an hour to finish my work.
    COMPARE
    (g) I live in a house. He lives in a hotel.

    In some words that begin with "h," the "h" is not pronounced. Instead, the word begins with a vowel sound and an is used: an hour, an honor.
    In most words that begin with "h," the "h" is pronounced. Use a if the "h" is pronounced.

7-3 Using a/an vs. some

  • (a) I have a pen.
    (b) I have some pens.

    A/An is used in front of singular count nouns.
    In (a): The word pen is a singular count noun.
    Some is used in front of plural count nouns.
    In (b): The word pens is a plural count noun.

  • (c) I have some rice.

    Some is used in front of noncount nouns.*
    In (c): The word rice is a noncount noun.

*Reminder: Noncount nouns do not have a plural form. Noncount nouns are grammatically singular.

7-4 Measurements with noncount nouns

  • (a) I’d like some water.
    (b) I’d like a glass of water.
    (c) I’d like a cup of coffee.
    (d) I’d like a piece of fruit.

    Units of measure are used with noncount nouns to express a specific quantity. For example: a glass of, a cup of, a piece of.
    In (a): some water = an unspecific quantity.
    In (b): a glass of water = a specific quantity.

  • COMMON EXPRESSIONS OF MEASURE
    a bag of rice / a bunch of bananas / a jar of pickles
    a bar of soap / a tin of corn / a loaf of bread
    a bottle of olive oil / a carton of milk / a piece of cheese
    a bowl of cereal / a glass of water / a sheet of paper
    a box of candy / a head of lettuce / a tube of toothpaste

7-5 Using many, much, a few, a little

(a) I don’t get many letters.
(b) I don’t get much mail.
(c) Ann gets a few letters.
(d) Tom gets a little mail.

In (a): many is used with PLURAL COUNT nouns.
In (b): much is used with NONCOUNT nouns.
In (c): a few is used with PLURAL COUNT nouns.
In (d): a little is used with NONCOUNT nouns.

7-6 Using the

  • (a) A: Where’s David?
    -> B: He’s in the kitchen.

    (b) A: I have two pieces of fruit for us, an apple and a banana. Which do you want?
    -> B: I’d like the apple, thank you.
    (c) A: It’s a nice summer day today. The sky is blue. The sun is hot.
    -> B: Yes, I really like summer.

    A speaker uses the when the speaker and the listener have the same thing or person in mind. The shows that a noun is specific.

    In (a): Both A and B have the same kitchen in mind.
    In (b): When B says “the apple,” both A and B have the same apple in mind.

    In (c): Both A and B are thinking of the same sky (there is only one sky for them of think of) and the same sun (there is only one sun for them of think of).

  • (d) Mike has a pen and a pencil.
    The pen is blue.
    The pencil is yellow.

    (e) Mike has some pens and pencils.
    The pens are blue.
    The pencils are yellow.

    (f) Mike has some rice and some cheese.
    The rice is white.
    The cheese is yellow.

    The is used with
    singular count nouns, as in (d).
    plural count nouns, as in (e).
    noncount nouns, as in (f).
    In other words, the is used with each of the three kinds of nouns.

    Notice in the examples: the speaker is using the for the second mention of a noun. When the speaker mentions a noun for a second time, both the speaker and listener are now thinking about the same thing.
    First mention: I have a pen.
    Second mention: The pen is blue.

7-7 Using Ø (no article) to make generalizations

  • (a) Ø Apples are good for you.
    (b) Ø Students use Ø pens and Ø pencils.
    (c) I like to listen to Ø music.
    (d) Ø Rice is good for you.

    No article (symbolized by Ø) is used to make generalizations with
    plural count nouns, as in (a) and (b), and
    noncount nouns, as in (c) and (d)

  • (e) Tom and Ann ate some fruit.
    The apples were very good, but the bananas were too ripe.

    (f) We went to a concert last night.
    The music was very good.

    COMPARE: In (a), the word apples is general. It refers to all apples, any apples. No article (Ø) is used.
    In (e), the word apples is specific, so the is used in front of it. It refers to the specific apples that Tom and Ann ate.
    COMPARE: In (c), music is general. In (f), the music is specific.

7-8 Using some and any

STATEMENT

  • (a) Alice has some money.

    Use some in affirmative statements.

NEGATIVE

  • (b) Alice doesn’t have any money.

    Use any in negative statements.

QUESTION

  • (c) Does Alice have any money?
    (d) Does Alice have some money?

    Use either some or any in a question.

  • (e) I don’t have any money. (noncount noun)
    (f) I don’t have any catches. (Plural count noun)

    Any is used with noncount nouns and plural count nouns.

CHAPTER 8 - Expressing Past Time, Part 1

8-1 Using be: past time

PRESENT TIME -> PAST TIME

  • (a) I am in class today. -> (b) I was in class yesterday.
    (c) Alice is at the library today. -> (d) Alice was at the library yesterday.
    (e) My friends are at home today. -> (f) My friends were at home yesterday.

  • SIMPLE PAST TENSE OF BE
    Singular: I was / you were (one person) / she was / he was / it was
    Plural: we were / you were (more than one person) / they were

    I / she / he / it + was
    we / you / they + were

8-2 Past of be: negative

  • (a) I was not in class yesterday.
    (b) I wasn’t in class yesterday.

    NEGATIVE CONTRACTIONS
    was + not = wasn’t
    were + not = weren’t

  • (c) They were not at home last night.
    (d) They weren’t at home last night.

    I / she / he / it + wasn’t
    we / you / they + weren’t

8-3 Past of be: question

YES / NO QUESTIONS -> SHORT ANSWER + (LONG ANSWER)

  • (a) Were you in class yesterday? (be) + (subject)
    -> Yes, I was. (I was in class yesterday.)
    -> No, I wasn’t. (I wasn’t in class yesterday.)

    (b) Was Carlos at home last night? (be) + (subject)
    -> Yes, he was. (He was at home last night.)
    -> No, he wasn’t. (He wasn’t at home last night.)

INFORMATION QUESTIONS -> SHORT ANSWER + (LONG ANSWER)

  • (c) Where were you yesterday? Where + (be) + (subject)
    -> In class. (I was in class yesterday.)

    (d) Where was Jennifer last night? Where + (be) + (subject)
    -> At home. (She was at home last night.)

8-4 The simple past tense: using -ed

SIMPLE PRESENT
(a) I walk to school every day.

SIMPLE PAST
(b) I walked to school yesterday.

SIMPLE PRESENT
(c) Ann walks to school every day.

SIMPLE PAST
(d) Ann walked to school yesterday.

Verb + -ed = the simple past tense
I / you / she / he / it / we / they + walked (verb + -ed)

8-5 Past time words: yesterday, last, and ago

YESTERDAY

  • (a) Bob was here …
    yesterday.
    yesterday morning.
    yesterday afternoon.
    yesterday evening.

LAST

  • (b) Sue was here …
    last night.
    last week.
    last month.
    last year.

    last spring.
    last summer.
    last fall.
    last winter.

    last Monday.
    last Tuesday.
    last Wednesday.
    etc.

AGO

  • (c) Tom was here …
    five minutes ago.
    two hours ago.
    three days ago.
    a (one) week ago.
    six months ago.
    a (one) year ago.

NOTICE
In (a): yesterday is used with morning, afternoon, and evening.
In (b): last is used with night, with long periods of time (week, month, year), with seasons (spring, summer, etc.), and with days of the week.
In (c): ago means “in the past.” It follows specific lengths of time (e.g., two minutes +ago, five years + ago).

8-6 The simple past: irregular verbs

Some verbs do not have -ed forms. Their past forms are irregular.

PRESENT -> PAST

  • come -> came
    do -> did
    eat -> ate
    get -> got
    go -> went
    have -> had
    put -> put
    see -> saw
    sit -> sat
    sleep -> slept
    stand -> stood
    write -> wrote

  • (a) I come to class every day.
    (b) I came to class yesterday.

    (c) I do my homework every day.
    (d) I did my homework yesterday.

    (e) Ann eats breakfast every morning.
    (f) Ann ate breakfast yesterday morning.

8-7 The simple past: negative

SUBJECT + DID + NOT + MAIN VERB

  • (a) I did not walk to school yesterday.
    (b) You did not walk to school yesterday.
    (c) Tom did not eat lunch yesterday.
    (d) They did not come to class yesterday.
    INCORRECT: I did not walked to school yesterday.
    INCORRECT: Tom did not ate lunch yesterday.

    I / you / she / he / it / we / they + did not + main verb*
    Notice: The simple form of the main verb is used did not.

  • (e) I didn’t walk to school yesterday.
    (f) Tom didn’t eat lunch yesterday.

    NEGATIVE CONTRACTION
    did + not = didn’t

*EXCEPTION: did is NOT used when the main verb is be.
 CORRECT: Joe wasn’t here yesterday.
 INCORRECT: Joe didn’t be here yesterday.

8-8 The simple past: yes/no questions

DID + SUBJET + MAIN VERB -> SHORT ANSWER + (LONG ANSWER)

(a) Did Mary walk to school?
-> Yes, she did. (She walked to school.)
-> No, she didn’t. (She didn’t walk to school.)

(b) Did you come to class?
-> Yes, I did. (I came to class.)
-> No, I didn’t. (I didn’t come to class.)

CHAPTER 9 - Expressing Past Time, Part 2

9-1 The simple past: using where, when, what time, and why

QUESTION -> SHORT ANSWER

  • (a) Did you go downtown?
    -> Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
    (b) Where did you go?
    -> Downtown.
    (c) Were you downtown?
    -> Yes, I was. / No, I wan’t.
    (d) Where were you?
    -> Downtown.

  • (e) Did you run because you were late?
    -> Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
    (f) Why did you run?
    -> Because I was late.

  • (g) Did Ann come at six?
    -> Yes, she did. / No. she didn’t.
    (h) When / What time did Ann come?
    -> At six.

COMPARE

  • (i) What time did Ann come?
    -> At six.
    -> Seven o’clock.
    -> Around 9:30.

    (j) When did Ann come?
    -> At six.
    -> Friday.
    -> June 15th.
    -> Last week.
    -> Three days ago.

    What time usually asks for a specific time on a clock.
    The answer to When can be various expressions of time.

9-2 Questions with what

What is used in question when you want to find out about a thing. Who is used when you want to find out about a person.

(QUESTION WORD) + HELPING VERB + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB -> ANSWER

  • (a) Did Carol buy a car?
    -> Yes, she did. (She bought a car.)
    (b)What did Carol buy?
    -> A car. (She bought a car.)
    (c) Is Fred holding a book?
    -> Yes, he is. (He’s holding a book.)
    (d) What is Fred holding?
    -> A book. (He’s holding a book.)

  • (e) Carol bought a car.
    (f) What did Carol buy?

    In (e): a car is the object of the verb.
    In (f): What is the object of the verb.

9-3 Questions with who

QUESTION -> ANSWER

  • (a) What did they see?
    -> A boat. (They saw a boat.)
    (b) Who did they see?
    -> Jim. (They saw Jim.)

    What is used to ask questions about things.
    Who is used to ask questions about people.

  • (c) Who did they see?
    -> Jim. (They saw Jim.)
    (d) Whom did they see?
    -> Jim. (They saw Jim.)

    (c) and (d) have the same meaning. Whom is used in formal English as the object of a verb or a preposition.
    In (c): Who, not Whom, is usually used in everyday English.
    In (d): Whom is used in very formal English. Whom is rarely used in everyday spoken English.

  • (e) Who did they see?
    -> Jim. (They saw Jim.)
    (f) Who came?
    -> Mary. (Mary came.)
    (g) Who lives there?
    -> Ed. (Ed lives there.)
    (h) Who saw Jim?
    -> Ann. (Ann saw Jim.)

    INCORRECT: Who did come?

    In (e): Who(m) is the object of the verb. Usual question word order (question word + helping verb + subject + main verb) is used.
    In (f), (g), and (h): Who is the subject of the question. Usual question word order is NOT used. When Who is the subject of a question, do NOT use does, do, or did. Do NOT change the verb in any way the verb form in the question is the same as the verb form in the answer.

9-7 Before and after in time clause

  • (a) I ate breakfast. = a main clause
    (b) before I went to class = a time clause
    (c) I ate breakfast before i went to class.
    (d) Before I went to class, I ate beakfast.

    A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb.

    A main clause is a complete sentence.
    Example (a) is a complete sentence.
    Example (b) is an incomplete sentence. It must be connected to a main clause, as in (c) and (d).

    A time clause can begin with before or after:
    before + S + V = a time clause
    after + S + V = a time clause

  • (e) We took a walk after we finished our work.
    (f) After we finished our work, we took a walk.

    A time clause can follow a man clause, as in (c) and (e). A time clause can come in front of a main clause, as in (d) and (f).* There is no difference in meaning between (c) and (d) or (e) and (f).

  • (g) We took a walk after the movie. (prep. phrase)
    (h) I had a cup of coffee before class.

    Before and after don’t always introduce a time clause. They are also used as prepositions followed by a noun objet, as in (g) and (h).

*Note: When a time clause comes before the main clause, a comma is used between the two clauses. A comma is not used when the time clause comes after the main clause.

9-8 When in time clauses

  • (a) When the rain stopped, we took a walk. OR
    We took a walk when the rain stopped.

    (b) When Tom was a child, he lived with his aunt. OR
    Tom lived with his aunt when he was a child.

    When can introduce a time clause.
    when + S + V = a time clause
    In (a): When the rain stopped is a time clause.
    In (b): Notice that the noun (Tom) comes before the pronoun (he).

  • COMPARE
    (c) When did the rain stop? = a question
    (d) When the rain stopped = a time clause

    When is also used to introduce questions. A question is a complete sentence, as in (c). A time clause is not a complete sentence, as in (d).

9-9 The present progressive and the past progressive

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (in progress right now)

  • (a) It’s 10:00 now. Boris is sitting in class.

    The present progressive describes an activity in progress right now, at the moment of speaking.
    In (a): Right now it is 10:00. Boris began to sit before 10:00. Sitting is in progress at 10:00.

PAST PROGRESSIVE (in progress yesterday)

  • (b) It was 10:00. Boris was sitting in class.

    The past progressive describes an activity in progress at a particular time in the past.
    In (b): Boris began to sit in class before 10:00 yesterday. At 10:00 yesterday, sitting in class was in progress.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE FORM: AM, IS, ARE + -ING

  • (c) It’s 10:00.
    I am sitting in class.
    Boris is sitting in class.
    We are sitting in class.

    The forms of the present progressive and the past progressive consist of be + -ing. The present progressive uses the present forms of be: am, is, and are + -ing.

PAST PROGRESSIVE FORM: WAS, WERE + -ING

  • (d) It was 10:00.
    Boris was sitting in class.
    We were sitting in class.

    The past progressive uses the past forms of be: was and were + -ing.

9-10 Using while with the past progressive

(a) The phone rang while I was sleeping. OR
(b) While I was sleeping, the phone rang.*

while + subject + verb = a time clause
While I was sleeping is a time clause.
A while-clause describes an activity that was in progress at the time another activity happened. The verb in a while-clause is open past progressive (e.g., was sleeping).

*NOTE: When a time clause comes before the main clause, a comma is used between the two clause. A comma is not used when the time clause comes after the main clause.

9-11 While vs. when in past time clauses

(a) The mouse appeared while I was studying. OR
(b) While I was studying, the mouse appeared.
(b) When he mouse appeared, I was studying. OR
(d) I was studying when the mouse appeared.

The verb in while-clause is often past progressive, as in (a) and (b).
The verb in when-clause is often simple past, as in (c) and (d).

9-12 Simple past vs. past progressive

  • (a) Jane called me yesterday.
    (b) I talked to Jane for an hour last night.
    (c) We went to Jack’s house last Friday.
    (d) What time did you get up this morning?

    The simple past describes activities or situations that began and ended at a particular time in the past (e.g., yesterday, last night).

  • (e) I was studying when Jane called me yesterday.
    (f) While I was studying last night, Jane called.

    The past progressive describes an activity that was in progress (was happening) at the time another action happened.
    In (e) and (f): The studying was in progress when Jane called.

  • (g) I opened my umbrella when it began to rain.

    If both the when-clause and the main clause in a sentence are simple past, it means that the action in the when-clause happened first, and the action in the main clause happened second.
    In (g): First, it began to rain; second, I opened my umbrella.

  • COMPARE
    (h) When the phone rang, I answered it.
    (i) When the phone rang, I was studying.

    In (h): First, the phone rang; second, I answered it.
    In (i): First, the studying was in progress; second, the phone rang.

CHAPTER 10 - Expressing Future Time, Part 1

10-1 Future time: using be going to

  • (a) I am going to go downtown tomorrow.
    (b) Sue is going to be here tomorrow afternoon.
    (c) We are going to come to class tomorrow morning.

    Be going to expresses (talks about) the future.
    FORM: am / is / are + going + infinitive*

  • (d) I’m not going to go downtown tomorrow.
    (e) Ann isn’t going to study tonight.

    NEGATIVE: be + not + going

  • (f) “Are you going to come to class tomorrow?”
    -> “No, I’m not.”
    (g) “Is Jim going to be at the meeting tomorrow?”
    -> “Yes, he is.”
    (h) “What time are you going to eat dinner tonight?”
    -> “Around six.”

    QUESTION: be + subject + going to
    A form of be is used in the short answer to a yes/no question with be going to, as in (f) and (g).

*Infinitive = to + the simple form of a verb (to come, to go, to see, to study, etc.).

10-2 Using the present progressive to express future time

  • (a) Sue is going to leave at 8:00 tomorrow.
    (b) Sue is leaving at 8:00 tomorrow.
    (c) We are going to drive to Toronto next week.
    (d) We are driving to Toronto next week.

    Sometimes the present progressive is used to express future time.
    (a) and (b) mean the same thing.
    (c) and (d) mean the same thing.
    The present progressive is used for future meaning when the speaker is talking about plans that have already been made.

  • COMMON VERBS
    come / drive / go / meet / spend / stay
    do / fly / leave / return / start / take

10-3 Words used for past time and future time

  • PAST: yesterday
    FUTURE: tomorrow

    PAST: It rained yesterday.
    FUTURE: It’s going to rain tomorrow.

  • PAST: yesterday morning / yesterday afternoon / yesterday evening / last night
    FUTURE: tomorrow morning / tomorrow afternoon / tomorrow evening / tomorrow night

    PAST: I was in class yesterday morning.
    FUTURE: I’m going to be in class tomorrow morning.

  • PAST: last week / last month / last year / last weekend / last spring / last summer / last fall / last winter / last Monday, etc.
    FUTURE: next week / next month / next year / next weekend / next spring / next summer / next fall / next winter / next Monday, etc.

    PAST: Mary went downtown last week.
    FUTURE: Mary is going to go downtown next week.
    PAST: Bob graduated from high school last spring.
    FUTURE: Ann is going to graduate from high school next spring.

  • PAST: … minutes ago / … hours ago / … days ago / … weeks ago / … months ago / … years ago
    FUTURE: in … minutes / in … hours / in … days / in … weeks / in … months / in … years

    PAST: I finished my homework five minutes ago.
    FUTURE: Pablo is going to finish his homework in five minutes.

10-4 Using a couple of or a few with ago (past) and in (future)

  • (a) Sam arrived here one (OR a) year ago.
    (b) Jack is going to be here in two minutes.
    (c) I talked to Ann three days ago.

    Number are often used in time expressions with ago and in.

  • (d) I saw Carlos a couple of months ago.
    (e) He’s going to return to Mexico in a couple of months.
    (f) I got a letter from Gina a few weeks ago.
    (g) I’m going to see Gina in a few weeks.

    A couple of and a few are also commonly used. A couple of means “two.” A couple of months ago = two months ago.
    A few means “a small number, not a large number.” A few weeks ago = three, four, or five weeks ago.

  • (h) I began college last year. I’m going to graduate in two more years. My sister is almost finished with her education. She’s going to graduate in a few more months.

    Frequently, the word more is used in future time expressions that begin with in.

10-5 Using today, tonight, and this + morning, afternoon, evening, week, month, year

PRESENT

  • Right now it’s 10 A.M. We are in our English class.
    (a) We are studying English this morning.

PAST

  • Right now it’s 10 A.M. Nancy left home at 9 A.M. to go downtown. She isn’t at home right now.
    (b) Nancy went downtown this morning.

FUTURE

  • Right now it’s 10 A.M. Class ends at 11 A.M. After class today, I’m going to go to the post office.
    (c) I’m going to go to the post office this morning.

These words can express present, past, or future time:
today / tonight / this morning / this afternoon / this evening
this week / this weekend / this month / this year

10-6 Future time: using will

STATEMENT

  • (a) Mike will arrive at 10:00 tomorrow.
    (b) Mike is going to arrive at 10:00 tomorrow.

    (a) and (b) have basically the same meaning.

  • (c) CORRECT : Mike will go there.
    INCORRECT: Mike will goes there.
    INCORRECT: Mike wills go there.

    The simple form of a verb follows will. In (c): goes and wills go are NOT correct.

    (d) CORRECT: Mike will arrive at 10:00.
    INCORRECT: Mike will arrives at 10:00.

    There is never a final -s on will for future time.

    (e)CORRECT: Mike will go there.
    INCORRECT: Mike will to go there.

    Will is not followed by an infinitive with to.

CONTRACTIONS

  • (f) I will come. = I’ll come.
    You will come. = You’ll come.
    She will come. = She’ll come.
    He will come. = He’ll come.
    It will come. = It’ll come.
    We will come = We’ll come.
    They will come = They’ll come.

    Will is contracted to ‘ll with subject pronouns.*
    These contractions are common in both speaking and writing.

NEGATIVE

  • (g) Bob will not be here tomorrow.
    (h) Bob won’t be here tomorrow.

    Negative contraction
    will + not = won’t

* Will is also often contracted with nouns in speaking (but not in writing).
WRITTEN: Tom will be here at ten.
SPOKEN: "Tom’ll" be here at ten.

10-7 Asking questions with will

(QUESTION WORD) + WILL + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB

(a) Will Tom come tomorrow?
-> ​Yes, he will.
-> ​No, she won’t.

(b) Will you be at home tonight?
-> ​Yes, I will.
-> ​No, I won’t.

(c) When will Ann arrive?
-> ​Next Saturday.

(d) What time will the plane arrive?
-> ​Three-thirty.

(e) Where will you be tonight?
-> ​At home.

10-8 Verb summary: present, past, and future

SIMPLE PRESENT

STATEMENT: I eat lunch every day. / He eats lunch every day.
NEGATIVE: I don’t eat breakfast. / She doesn’t eat breakfast.
QUESTION: Do you eat breakfast? / Does she eat lunch?

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

STATEMENT: I am eating an apple right now. / She is eating an apple. / They are eating apples.
NEGATIVE: I’m not eating a pear. / She isn’t eating a pear. / They aren’t eating pears.
QUESTION: Am I eating a banana? / Is he eating a banana? / Are they eating bananas?

SIMPLE PAST

STATEMENT: He ate lunch yesterday.
NEGATIVE: He didn’t eat breakfast.
QUESTION: Did you eat breakfast?

BE GOING TO

STATEMENT: I am going to eat lunch at noon. / She is going to eat lunch at noon. / They are going to eat lunch at noon.
NEGATIVE: I’m not going to eat breakfast tomorrow. / She isn’t going to eat breakfast tomorrow. / They aren’t going to eat breakfast tomorrow.
QUESTION: Am I going to see you tomorrow? / Is she going to eat lunch tomorrow? / Are they going to eat lunch tomorrow?

WILL

STATEMENT: He will eat lunch tomorrow.
NEGATIVE: He won’t eat breakfast tomorrow.
QUESTION: Will he eat lunch tomorrow?

10-9 Verb summary: forms of be

SIMPLE PRESENT

STATEMENT: I am from Korea. / He is fro Egypt. / They are from Venezuela.
NEGATIVE: I am not from Jordan. / She isn’t from China. / They aren’t from Italy.
QUESTION: Am I in the right room? / Is she from Greece? / Are they from Kenya?

SIMPLE PAST

STATEMENT: ANN was late yesterda. / They were late yesterday.
NEGATIVE: She wasn’t on time. / They weren’t on time.
QUESTION: Was she in class? / Were they in class?

BE GOING TO

STATEMENT: I am going to be late. / She is going to be late. / They are going to be late.
NEGATIVE: I’m not going to be on time. / She isn’t going to be on time. / They aren’t going to be on time.
QUESTION: Am I going to be late? / Is she going to be late? / Are they going to be late tomorrow?

WILL

STATEMENT: He will be at home tomorrow.
NEGATIVE: He won’t be at home tomorrow.
QUESTION: Will he be at home tomorrow?

CHAPTER 11 - Expressing Future Time, Part 2

11-1 May/might vs. will

  • (a) It may rain tomorrow.
    (b) Anita may be at home now.

    May + verb (simple form) expresses a possibility in the future, as in (a), or a present possibility, as in (b).

  • (c) It might rain tomorrow.
    (d) Anita might be at home now.

    Might has the same meaning as may.
    (a) and (c) have the same meaning.

  • (e) Tom will be at the meeting tomorrow.
    (f) Ms. Lee may/might be at the meeting tomorrow.

    In (e): The speaker uses will because he feels sure about Tom’s presence at the meeting tomorrow. In (f): The speaker uses may/might to say, “I don’t know if Ms. Lee will be at the meeting, but it is possible.”

  • (g) Ms. Lee may/might not be at the meeting tomorrow.

    Negative form: may/might + not
    Note: (f) and (g) have essentially the same meaning: Ms. Lee may or may not be at the meeting.

  • INCORRECT: Ms. Lee may will be at the meeting tomorrow.
    INCORRECT: Ms. Lee might will be at the meeting tomorrow.

    May and might are not used with will.

11-2 Maybe (one word) vs. may be (two words)

  • (a) “Will Abdullah be in class tomorrow?”
    “I don’t know. Maybe. Maybe Abdullah will be in class tomorrow, and maybe he won’t.”
    (b) Maybe Abdullah will be here.
    ​ adverb + subject + verb

    The adverb maybe (one word) means “possibly.”
    Maybe comes in front of a subject and verb.

  • (c) Abdullah may be here tomorrow.
    Subject + verb

    May be (two words) is used as the verb of a sentence.

11-3 Future time clauses with before, after, and when

  • (a) Before Ann goes to work tomorrow, She will eat breakfast.
    INCORRECT: Before Ann will go to work tomorrow, she will eat breakfast.
    INCORRECT: Before Ann is going to go to work tomorrow, she will eat breakfast.

    In (a): Before Ann goes to work tomorrow is a future time clause.
    A future time clause uses the SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, not will or be going to.

  • (b) I’m going to finish my homework after I eat dinner tonight.
    (c) When I go to New York next week, I’m going to stay at the Hilton Hotel.

    In (b): after I eat dinner tonight = a future time clause.
    In (c): When I go to New York next week = a future time clause.
    Notice: A comma follows an adverb clause when it comes at the beginning of a sentence.

11-4 Clauses with if

  • (a) If it rains tomorrow, we will stay home.
    (b) We will stay home, if it rains tomorrow.

    An if-clause begins with if and has a subject and a verb. An if-clause can come before or after a main clause.
    Notice: A comma follows an if-clause when it comes at the beginning of a sentence.

  • (c) If it rains tomorrow, we won’t go on a picnic.
    (d) I’m going to buy a new car next year if I have enough money. If I don’t have enough money next year for a new car, I’m going to buy a used car.

    The SIMPLE PRESENT (not will or be going to) is used in an if-clause to express future time.

11-5 Expressing habitual present with time clauses and if-clauses

  • (a) FUTURE: After Ann gets to work today, she is going to have/will have a cup of coffee.
    (b) HABITUAL PRESENT: After Ann gets to work (every day), she always has a cup of coffee.

    (a) expresses a specific activity in the future. The SIMPLE PRESENT is used in the time clause. Be going to or will is used in the main clause.
    (b) express habitual activities, so the SIMPLE PRESENT is used in both the time clause and the main clause.

  • (c) FUTURE: If it rains tomorrow, I am going to/will wear my raincoat to school.
    (d)HABITUAL PRESENT: If it rains, I wear my raincoat.

    (c) expresses a specific activity in the future. The SIMPLE PRESENT is used in the if-clause. Be going to or will is used in the main clause.
    (d) expresses habitual activities, so the SIMPLE PRESENT is used in both the if-clause and the main clause.

11-6 Using what + a form of do

PRESENT

  • (a) What do you do every day?
    -> I work every day.
    (b) What are you doing right now?
    -> I‘m studying English.
    (c) What do you do?
    -> I’m a teacher.

PAST

  • (d) What did you do yesterday?
    -> I went to school yesterday.

FUTURE

  • (e) What are you going to do tomorrow?
    -> I’m going to go downtown tomorrow.
    (f) What will we do if it rains tomorrow?
    -> We’ll stay home if it rains tomorrow.

In (a) and (b), What + a form of do is used to ask about activities.
In (c): What do you do? means What kind of work do you do? OR What is you job?

CHAPTER 12 - Modals, Part 1: Expressing Ability

12-1 Using can

  • (a) I have some money. I can buy a book.
    (b) We have time and money. We can go to a movie.
    (c) Tom is strong. He can lift the heavy box.

    Can expresses ability and possibility.

  • (d) CORRECT: Yuko can speak English.

    The simple form of the main verb follows can. In (d): speak is the main verb.

    (e) INCORRECT: Yuko can to speak English.

    An infinitive with to does NOT follow can. In (e): to speak is incorrect.

    (f) INCORRECT: Yuko can speaks English.

    A main verb following can does not have a final -s. In (f): speaks is incorrect.

  • (g) Alice can not come. Alice cannot come. Alice can’t come.

    NEGATIVE
    can + not = can not or cannot
    CONTRACTION
    can + not = can’t

12-2 Pronunciation of can and can’t

(a) Rick can come to the meeting.
(b) Mike can’t come to the meeting.

Can is usually pronounced “kun” - /kǝn/
Can’t is usually pronounced with the same vowel sound as “ant” - /kænt/.
Native speakers usually drop the /t/.

12-3 Using can: questions

(QUESTION WORD) + CAN + SUBJECT + MAIN VERB -> ANSWER

  • (a) Can you speak Arabic?
    -> Yes, I can.
    -> No, I can’t.
    (b) Can Rosa come to the party?
    -> Yes, she can.
    -> No, she can’t.

  • (c) Where can I buy a hammer?
    -> At a hardware store.
    (d) When can you help me?
    -> Tomorrow afternoon.

12-4 Using know how to

(a) I can swim.
(b) I know how to swim.
(c) Can you cook?
(d) Do you know how to cook?

(a) and (b) have basically the same meaning.
Know how to expresses ability.
(c) and (d) have basically the same meaning.

12-5 Using could: past of can

  • (a) I am in Hawaii. I can go to the beach every day.
    (b) I was in Hawaii last month. I could go to the beach every day when I was there.

    could = past from of can

  • (c) I can’t go to the movie today. I have to study.
    (d) I couldn’t go / could not go to the movie last night. I had to study.

    NEGATIVE:
    could + not = couldn’t

  • Could you speak English before you came here?

    QUESTION:
    could + subject + main verb

12-6 Using be able to

PRESENT

  • (a) I am able to touch my toes.
    (b) I can touch my toes.

    (a) and (b) have basically the same meaning.

FUTURE

  • (c) I will be able to go shopping tomorrow.
    (d) I can go shopping tomorrow.

    (c) and (d) have basically the same meaning.

PAST

  • (e) I wan’t able to finish my homework last night.
    (f) I couldn’t finish my homework last night.

    (e) and (f) have basically the same meaning.

12-7 Using very and too + adjective

  • (a) The box is very heavy, but Tom can lift it.
    (b) The box is too heavy. Bob can’t lift it.
    (c) The coffee is very hot, but I can drink it.
    (d) The coffee is too hot. I can’t drink it.

    Very and too come in front of adjectives; heavy an hot are adjectives.
    Very and too do NOT have the same meaning.
    In (a): very heavy = It is difficult but possible for Tom to lift the box.
    In (b): too heavy = It is impossible for Bob to lift the box.

  • (d) The coffee is too hot.
    NEGATIVE RESULT: I can’t drink it.
    (f) The weather is too cold.
    NEGATIVE RESULT: We can’t go to the beach.

    In the speaker’s mind, the use of too implies a negative result.

12-8 Using two, too, and to

TWO

  • (a) I have two children.

    Two, too, and to have the same pronunciation.
    In (a): two = a number.

TOO

  • (b) Timmy is too young. He can’t read.
    (c) Ann saw the movie. I saw the movie too.

    In (b): too young = impossible to do because of his youth.
    In (c): too = also.

TO

  • (d) I talked to Jim.
    (e) I want to watch television.

    In (d): to = a preposition.
    In (e): to = part of an infinitive.

12-9 More about prepositions: at and in for place

  • (a) Olga is at home. Ivan is at work. Yoko is at school.
    (b) Sue is in bed. Tom is in class. Paul is in jail/prison.
    (c) Mr. Lee is in the hospital.

    In (a): at is used with home, work, and school.*
    In (b): in is used with bed, class, and jail/prison.*
    In (c): in is used with the hospital.
    Note: American English = in the hospital.
    ​British English = in hospital.

  • (d) Ahmed is in the kitchen.
    (e) David is in Mexico City.

    In (d): in is used with rooms: in the kitchen, in the classroom, in the hall, in my bedroom, etc.
    In (e): in is used with cities, states/provinces, countries, and continents: in Mexico City, in Florida, in Italy, in Asia, etc.

  • (f) A: Where’s Ivan?
    ​ B: He isn’t here. He’s at the bank.

    In (f): at is usually used with locations in a city: at the post office, at the bank, at the library, at the bookstore, at the park, at the theater, at the restaurant, at the football stadium, etc.

    COMPARE
    (g) Ivan is in the bank. He is not outside the bank.

    In (g): A speaker uses in with a building only when it is important to say that someone is inside, not outside, the building. Usually a speaker uses at with a building. in the bank = inside the bank building.

*Notice: In these common expressions of place, the is not used in front of home, work, school, bed, class, jail/prison.

CHAPTER 13 - Modals, Part 2: Advice, Necessity, Requests, Suggestions

13-1 Using should

  • (a) My clothes are dirty. I should wash them.
    (b) Tom is sleepy. He should go to bed.
    (c) You’re sick. You should see a doctor.

    Should means “This is a good idea. This is good advice.”

  • (d) I / You / She / He / It / We / They should go.

    Should is followed by the simple form of a verb.
    INCORRECT: He should goes.
    INCORRECT: He should to go.

  • (e) You should not leave your grammar book at home. You need it in class.
    (f) You shouldn’t leave your grammar book at home.

    NEGATIVE: should not
    CONTRACTION: should + not = shouldn’t

13-2 Using have + infinitive (have to / has to)

  • (a) People need to eat food.
    (b) People have to eat food.
    (c) Jack needs to study for his test.
    (d) Jack has to study for his test.

    (a) and (b) have basically the same meaning.
    (c) and (d) have basically the same meaning.
    Have + infinitive has a special meaning: it expresses the same idea as need.

  • (e) I had to study last night.

    PAST FORM: had + infinitive.

  • (f) Do you have to leave now?
    (g) What time does Jim have to leave?
    (h) Why did they have to leave yesterday?

    QUESTION FORM: do, does, or did is used in questions with have to.

  • (i) I don’t have to study tonight.
    (j) The concert was free. We didn’t have to buy tickets.

    NEGATIVE FORM: don’t, doesn’t, or didn’t is used with have to.

13-3 Using must

  • (a) People need food. People have to eat food.
    (b) People need fodd. People must eat food.

    (a) and (b) have the same meaning:
    must eat = have to eat.

  • (c) I / You / She / He / It / We / They must work.

    Must is followed by the simple form of a verb.
    INCORRECT: He must works.
    INCORRECT: He must to work.

  • (d) You must not be late for work if you want to keep your job.

    must not = Don’t do this! You don’t have a choice.

    (e) You don’t have to go to the movie with us if you don’t want to.

    don’t have to = It’s not necessary; youhave a choice.

Compare the following examples. Notice the difference between must and should.

MUST: SOMETHING IS VERY IMPORTANT. SOMETHING IS NECESSARY. YOU DO NOT HAVE A CHOICE.

  • (f) I must study tonight. I’m going to take a very important test tomorrow.
    (h) You must take an English course. You cannot graduate without it.
    (j) Johnny, this is your mother speaking. You must eat your vegetables. You can’t leave the table until you eat your vegetables.

SHOULD: SOMETHING IS A GOOD IDEA, BUT YOU HAVE A CHOICE.

  • (g) I should study tonight. I have some homework to do, but I’m tired. I’ll study tomorrow morning. I’m going to go to bed now.
    (i) You should take an English course. It will help you.
    (k) Johnny, you should eat your vegetables. They’re good for you. You’ll grow up to be strong and healthy.

13-4 Polite questions: may I, could I, and can I

  • (a) May I borrow your pen?
    (b) Could I borrow your pen?
    (c) Can I borrow your pen?

    (a), (b), and (c) have the same meaning: I want to borrow your pen. I am asking politely to borrow your pen.

  • (d) May I please borrow your pen?
    (e) Could I please borrow your pen?
    (f) Can I please borrow your pen?

    Please is often used in polite questions.

  • TYPICAL RESPONSES
    (g) Yes, of course.
    (h) Of course.
    (i) Certainly.
    (j) Sure. (informal)*
    (k) No problem. (informal)*

    TYPICAL CONVERSATION
    A: May I please borrow your pen?
    B: Yes, of course. Here it is.
    A: Thank you. / Thanks.

*Informal English is typically used between friends and family members.

13-5 Polite questions: could you and would you

  • (a) Could you (please) open the door?
    (b) Would you (please) open the door?

    (a) and (b) have the same meaning: I want you to open the door. I am asking you politely to open the door.

  • TYPICAL RESPONSES
    (c) Yes, of course.
    (d) Certainly.
    (e) I’d be glad to.
    (f) I’d be happy to.
    (g) Sure. (informal)
    (h) No problem. (informal)

    A TYPICAL CONVERSATION
    A: Could you please open the door?
    B: I’d be glad to.
    A: Thank you. / Thanks.

13-6 Imperative sentences

  • (a) “Close the door, Jimmy. It’s cold outside.”
    ​ -> “Okay, Mon.”

    In (a) : Close the door is an imperative sentence.
    The sentence means “Jimmy, I want you to close the door. I am telling you to close the door.”

  • (b) Sit down.
    (c) Be careful!

    An imperative sentence uses the simple form of a verb (close, sit, be, etc.).

  • (d) Don’t open the window.
    (e) Don’t be late.

    NEGATIVE
    don’t + the simple form of a verb

  • (f) ORDERS: Stop, thief!
    (g) DIRECTIONS: Open your books to page 24.
    (h) ADVICE: Don’t worry.
    (i) REQUESTS: Please close the door.

    Imperative sentences give orders, directions, and advice. With the addition of please, as in (i), imperative sentences are used to make polite requests.

13-7 Modal auxiliaries

  • (a) Anita can / could / may / might / must / should / will go to class.

    An auxiliary is a helping verb. It comes in front of the simple form of a main verb. The following helping verbs are called “modal auxiliaries”: can, could, may, might, must, should will, would.

  • (b) Anita is able to / is going to / has to go to class.

    Expressions that are similar to modal auxiliaries are be able to, be going to, have to.

13-8 Summary chart: modal auxiliaries and similar expressions

  • (a) can
    ability: I can sing.
    polite question: Can you please help me?

  • (b) could
    past ability: I couldn’t go to class yesterday.
    polite question: Could you please help me?

  • (c) may
    possibility: It may rain tomorrow.
    polite question: May I help you?

  • (d) might
    possibility: It might rain tomorrow.

  • (e) must
    necessity: You must have a passport.

  • (f) should
    advisability: You Should see a doctor.

  • (g) will
    future happening: My sister will meet us at the airport.

  • (h) would
    polite question: Would you please open the door?

  • (i) be able to
    ability: I wan’t able to attend the meeting.

  • (j) be going to
    future happening: Tina is going to meet us at the airport.

  • (k) have to / has to
    necessity: I have to study tonight.

  • (l) had to
    past necessity: I had to study last night too.

13-9 Using let’s

(a)
Bob: What should we do tonight?
Ann: Let’s go to a movie.
Bob: Okay.
(b)
Sue: I’m tired.
Ted: I’m tired too. Let’s take a break.
Sue: That’s a good idea!

Let’s (do something) = I have a suggestion for you and me. (let’s = let us)
In (a): Let’s go to a movie. = I think we should go to a movie. Do you want to go to a movie?

CHAPTER 14 - Nouns and Modifiers

14-1 Modifying nouns with adjectives and nouns

ADJECTIVE + NOUN

  • (a) I bought an expensive book.

    Adjectives can modify nouns, as in (a).

NOUN + NOUN

  • (b) I bought a grammar book.

    Nouns can modify other nouns.
    In (b): grammar is a noun that is used as an adjective to modify another noun (book).

    (c) He works at a shoe store.
    INCORRECT: He works at a shoes store.

    A noun that is used as an adjective is always in its singular form. In (c): the store sells shoes, but it is called a shoe (singular form) store.

ADJECTIVE + NOUN + NOUN

  • (d) I bought an expensive grammar book.
    INCORRECT: I bought a grammar expensive book.

    Both an adjective and a noun can modify a noun; the adjective comes first, the noun second.

14-2 Word order of adjectives

  • (a) a large red car
    INCORRECT: a red large car

    In (a): two adjectives (large and red) modify a noun (car). Adjectives follow a particular order.
    In (a): an adjective describing size (large) comes before color (red).

  • (b) a beautiful young woman
    (c) a beautiful red car
    (d) a beautiful Greek island

    The adjective beautiful expresses an opinion. Opinion adjectives usually come before all other adjectives.
    In (b): opinion precedes age.
    In (c): opinion precedes color.
    In (d): opinion precedes nationality.

  • (e) OPINION ADJECTIVES
    dangerous / favorite / important
    difficult / good / interesting
    dirty / happy / strong
    expensive / honest / wonderful

    There are many opinion adjectives. The words in (e) are examples of common opinion adjectives.

  • USUAL WORD ORDER OF ADJECTIVES

    (1) OPINION + (2) SIZE + (3) AGE + (4) COLOR + (5) NATIONALITY* + (6) MATERIAL
    beautiful + large + young + red + Greek + metal
    delicious + tall + old + blue + Chinese + glass
    kind + little + middle-aged + black + Mexican + plastic

  • (f) some delicious Mexican food
    (g) a small glass vase
    (h) a kind old Chinese man

    A noun is usually modified by only one or two adjectives, although sometimes there are three.

  • RARE
    a beautiful small old brown Greek metal coin

    It is very rare to find a long list of adjectives in front of a noun

*NOTE: Adjectives that describe nationality are capitalized: Korean, Venezuelan, Saudi Arabian, etc.

14-3 Expressions of quantity: all of, most of, some of, almost all of

  • (a) Rita ate all of the food on her plate.
    (b) Mike ate most of his food.
    (c) Susie ate some of her food.

    All of, most of, and some of express quantities.
    all of = 100%
    most of = a large part, but not all
    some of = a small or medium part

  • Mate ate almost all of his food.
    INCORRECT: Mate ate almost of his food.

    all of = 100%
    almost all of = 95% - 99%
    Almost is used with all; all cannot be omitted.

14-4 Expressions of quantify: subject-verb agreement

  • (a) All of my work is finished.
    (b) All of my friends are kind.
    (c) Some of my homework is finished.
    (d) Some of my friends are coming to my birthday party.

    In (a): all of + singular noun + singular verb.
    In (b): all of + plural noun + plural verb.
    In (c): some of + singular noun + singular verb.
    In (d): some of + plural noun + plural verb.

    When a subject includes an expression of quantity, the verb agree with the noun that immediately follows of.

  • COMMON EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
    all of / a lot of / most of
    almost all of / half of / some of

14-5 Expressions of quantity: one of, none of

ONE OF + PLURAL NOUN

  • (a) Sam is one of my friends.

    One of is followed by a specific plural noun, as in (a).
    It is INCORRECT to follow one of with a singular noun.

ONE OF + PL.NOUN + SING. VERB

  • (b) one of my friends is here.
    INCORRECT: One of my friends are here.

    When one of + a plural noun is the subject of a sentence, it is followed by a singular verb, as in (b):
    ONE OF + PLURAL NOUN + SINGULAR VERB.

  • (c) None of the students was late.
    (d) None of the students were late.

    In (d): Not one of the students was late.
    none of = not one of
    The verb following none of + a plural noun can be singular, as in (c), or plural, as in (d). Both are correct.*

*In very formal English, a singular verb is used after none of + a plural noun: None of the students was late. In everyday English, both singular and plural verbs are used.

14-6 Indefinite pronouns: nothing and no one

  • (a) I didn’t say anything.
    (b) I said nothing.
    INCORRECT: I didn’t say nothing.

    (a) and (b) have the same meaning.
    Anything is used when the verb is negative.
    Nothing is used when the verb is affirmative.

  • (c) Bob didn’t see anyone at the park.
    (d) Bob saw no one at the park.
    INCORRECT: Bob didn’t see no one at the park.

    (c) and (d) have the same meaning.
    Anyone is used when the verb is negative.
    No one is used when the verb is affirmative.

14-7 Indefinite pronouns: something, someone, anything, anyone

STATEMENT

  • (a) Mary bought something at the store.
    (b) Jim talked to someone after class.

    In a statement, use something or someone.

NEGATIVE

  • (c) Mary didn’t buy anything at the store.
    (d) Jim didn’t talk to anyone after class.

    In a negative sentence, use anything or anyone.

QUESTION

  • (e) Did Mary buy something at the store?
    ​ Did Mary buy anything at the store?
    (f) Did Jim talk to someone after class?
    ​ Did Jim talk to anyone after class?

    In a question, use either
    something / someone or anything / anyone

14-8 Using every

  • (a) Every student has a book.
    (b) All of the students have books.
    INCORRECT: Every of the students has a book.
    INCORRECT: Every students have books.

    (a) and (b) have essentially the same meaning.
    In (a): every + singular noun + singular verb.
    Every is not immediately followed by of.
    Every is immediately followed by a singular noun, NOT a plural noun.

  • (c) Everyone has a book.
    (d) Everybody has a book.

    (c) and (d) have the same meaning.
    Everyone and everybody are followed by a singular verb.

  • (e) I looked at everything in the museum.
    (f) Everything is okay.

    In (e): everything = each thing
    in (f): Everything is followed by a singular verb.

14-9 Linking verbs + adjectives

BE + ADJECTIVE

  • (a) The flowers were beautiful.

    Adjectives can follow a few other verbs. These verbs are called “linking verbs.” The adjective describes the subject of the sentence.

LINKING VERB + ADJECTIVE

  • (b) The flowers looked beautiful.
    (c) The flowers smelled good.
    (d) I feel good.
    (e) Candy tastes sweet.
    (f) That book sounds interesting.

    Adjectives can follow a few other verbs. These verbs are called “linking verbs.” The adjective describes the subject of the sentence.
    Common linking verbs are look, smell, feel, taste, and sound.

14-10 Adjectives and adverbs

  • (a) Ann is careful driver. (adjective)
    (b) Ann drives carefully. (adverb)

    ADJECTIVE: careful / slow / quick / easy
    ADVERB: carefully / slowly / quickly / easily

    An adjective describes a noun.
    In (a): careful describes driver.

    An adverb describes the action of a verb.
    In (b): carefully describes drives.
    Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective.

  • (c) John is a fast driver. (adjective)
    (d) John drives fast. (adverb)

    ADJECTIVE: fast / hard / early / late
    ADVERB: carefully / slowly / quickly / easily

    The adjective form and the adverb form are the same for fast, hard, early, late.

  • (e) Linda is a good writer. (adjective)
    (f) Linda writes well. (adverb)

    ADJECTIVE: good
    ADVERB: well

    Well is the adverb for of good.*

* Well can also be used as an adjective to mean “not sick.” Paul was sick last week, but now he’s well.

CHAPTER 15 - Possessives

15-1 Possessive nouns

  • (a) My friend has a car. My friend’s car is blue.
    SINGULAR NOUN: friend
    POSSESSIVE FORM: friend’s

    (b) The student has a book. The student’s book is red.
    SINGULAR NOUN: student
    POSSESSIVE FORM: student’s

    To show that a person possesses something, add an apostrophe (‘) and -s to a singular noun.
    POSSESSIVE NOUN, SINGULAR:
    noun + apostrophe (‘) + -s

  • (c) The students have books. The student’s books are red.
    SINGULAR NOUN: students
    POSSESSIVE FORM: students’

    (d) My friends have a car. My friends’ car is blue.
    SINGULAR NOUN: friends
    POSSESSIVE FORM: friends’

    Add an apostrophe (‘) at the end of a plural noun (after the -s).
    POSSESSIVE NOUN, PLURAL:
    noun + -s + apostrophe (‘)

15-2 Possessive: irregular plural nouns

(a) The children’s toys are on the floor.
(b) That store sells men’s clothing.
(c) That store sells women’s clothing.
(d) I like to know about other people’s lives.

Irregular plural nouns (children, men, women, people) have an irregular plural possessive form. The apostrophe (‘) comes before the final -s.

REGULAR PLURAL POSSESSIVE NOUN:
the students’s books
IRREGULAR PLURAL POSSESSIVE NOUN:
the women’s books

15-3 Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs

(a) This book belongs to me.
-> It is my book.
-> It is mine.
(b) That book belongs to you.
-> It is your book.
-> It is yours.
(c) That book is mine.
INCORRECT: That is mine book.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE:
my / your / her / his / our / their
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN:
mine / yours / hers / his / ours / theirs

A possessive adjective is used in front a noun: my book.
A possessive pronoun is used alone, without a noun following it, as in (c).

15-4 Questions with whose

  • (a) Whose book is this?
    -> Mine.
    -> It’s mine.
    -> It’s my book.
    (b) Whose books are these?
    -> Rita’s.
    -> They’re Rita’s.
    -> They’re Rita’s books.

    Whose asks about possession.
    Whose is often used with a noun (e.g., whose book), as in (a) and (b).

  • (c) Whose is this? (The speaker is pointing to a book.)
    (d) Whose are these? (The speaker is pointing to some books.)

    Whose can be used without a noun if the meaning is clear, as in (c) and (d).

  • (e) Who’s your teacher?

    In (e): Who’s = who is.
    Whose and Who’s have the same pronunciation.

CHAPTER 16 - Making Comparisons

16-1 Comparisons: using the same (as), similar (to), and different (from)

  • THE SAME (AS)
    A and B are the same.
    A is the same as B.

  • SIMILAR (TO)
    C and D are similar.
    C is similar to D.

  • DIFFERENT (FROM)
    E and F are different.
    E is different from F.

16-2 Comparisons: using like and alike

You have a ballpoint pen with blue ink.
I have a ballpoint pen with blue ink.

(a) Your pen is like my pen.
(b) Your pen and my pen are alike.
(c) Our pens are like.

like = similar to
alike = similar
Like and alike have the same meaning, but the sentence patterns are different.
This + be + like + that.
This and that + be + alike.

16-3 The comparative: using -er and more

  • Mary is 25 years old.
    John is 20 years old.

    (a) Mary is older than john.
    (b) Health is more important than money.

    INCORRECT: Mary is more old than John.
    INCORRECT: Health is importanter than money.

    When we use adjectives (e.g., old, important) to compare two people or two things, the adjectives have special forms.
    In (a): We add -er to an adjective, OR
    In (b): We use more in front of an adjective.
    The use of -er or more is called the COMPARATIVE FORM.

    Notice in the examples: than follows the comparative form: older than, more important than.

ADJECTIVES WITH ONE SYLLABLE

  • ADJECTIVE: big / cheap / old
    COMPARATIVE: bigger / cheaper / older

    Add -er to one-syllable adjectives.

    Spelling note: If an adjective ends in one vowel and one consonant, double the consonant: big-bigger, fat-fatter, hot-hotter, thin-thinner.

ADJECTIVES THAT END IN -Y

  • ADJECTIVE: funny / pretty
    COMPARATIVE: funnier / prettier

    If an adjective ends in -y, change the -y to -i and add -er.

ADJECTIVES WITH TWO OR MORE SYLLABLES

  • ADJECTIVE: famous / important / interesting
    COMPARATIVE: more famous / important / interesting

    Use more in front of adjectives that have two or more syllables (except adjectives that end in -y).

IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE FORMS

  • ADJECTIVE: good / bad / far
    COMPARATIVE: better / worse / farther OR further

    The comparative forms of good, bad, and far are irregular.

16-4 The superlative: using -est and most

  • (a) COMPARATIVE
    My thumb in shorter than my index finger.
    (b) SUPERLATIVE
    My hand has five fingers. My thumb is the shortest (finger) of all.

    The comparative (-er/more) compares two things or people.
    The superlative (-est/most) compares three or more things or people.

ADJECTIVES WITH ONE SYLLABLE

  • ADJECTIVE: old / big
    COMPARATIVE: older (than) / bigger (than)
    SUPERLATIVE: the oldest (of all) / the biggest (of all)

ADJECTIVES THAT END IN -Y

  • ADJECTIVE: pretty / easy
    COMPARATIVE: prettier (than) / easier (than)
    SUPERLATIVE: the prettiest (of all) / the easiest (of all)

ADJECTIVES WITH TWO OR MORE SYLLABLES

  • ADJECTIVE: expensive / important
    COMPARATIVE: more expensive (than) / more important (than)
    SUPERLATIVE: the most expensive (of all) / the most important (of all)

IRREGULAR FORMS

  • ADJECTIVE: good / bad / far
    COMPARATIVE: better (than) / worse (than) / farther & further (than)
    SUPERLATIVE: the best (of all) / the worst (of all) / the farthest & furthest (of all)

16-5 Using one of + superlative + plural noun

(a) The Amazon is one of the longest rivers in the world.
(b) A Rolls Royce is one of the most expensive cars in the world.
(c) Alice is one of the most intelligent people in our class.

The superlative often follows one of.
Notice the pattern:
one of + superlative + plural noun

16-6 Using but

(a) John is rich, but Mary is poor.
(b) The weather was cold, but we were warm inside our house.

But gives the idea that “This is the opposite of that.”
A comma usually precedes but.

16-7 Using verbs after but

AFFIRMATIVE VERB + but + NEGATIVE VERB

(a) john is rich, but Mary isn’t.
(b) Balls are round, but boxes aren’t.
(c) I was in class, but Po wasn’t.
(d) Sue studies hard, but Sam doesn’t.
(e) We like movies, but they don’t.
(f) Alex came, but Maria didn’t.
(g) People can talk, but animals can’t.
(h) Olga will be there, but Ivan won’t.

NEGATIVE VERB + but + AFFIRMATIVE VERB

(i) Mary isn’t rich, but John is.
(j) Boxes aren’t round, but balls are.
(k) Po wasn’t in class, but I was.
(l) Sam doesn’t study, but Sue does.
(m) They don’t like cats, but we do.
(n) Maria didn’t come, but Alex did.
(o) Animals can’t talk, but people can.
(p) Ivan won’t be there, but Olga will.

Often the verb phrase following but is shortened, as in the examples.

16-8 Making comparisons with adverbs

  • (a) Kim speaks more fluently than Ali (does).
    (b) Anna speaks the most fluently of all.

    COMPARATIVE: more fluently / more slowly / more quickly
    SUPERLATIVE: the most fluently / the most slowly / the most quickly

    Use more and most with adverbs that end in -ly.*

  • (c) Mike worked harder than sam (did).
    (d) Sue worked the hardest of all.

    COMPARATIVE: harder / faster / earlier / later
    SUPERLATIVE: the hardest / the fastest / the earliest / the latest

    Use -er and -est with irregular adverbs: hard, fast, early, late.

  • (e) Rose writes better than I do.
    (f) Kim writes the best of all.

    COMPARATIVE: better
    SUPERLATIVE: the best

    Better and best are forms of the adverb well.

*Exception: early-earlier-the earliest.